An extreme form of rouging. Occurs at raised temperatures. Because of the poor solubility of such coatings, special treatment methods must be used for their removal.


Cleaning in place; CIP cleaning is generally used nowadays for pharmaceutical facilities. In other words, the equipment is cleaned by a continuous or circuit technique without dismantling.


Corrosion means the physico-chemical interaction between a metal and its environment which leads to a change in the properties of the metal and is liable to cause substantial impairment of the function of the metal, the environment or the technical system of which the metal is a part. This interaction is often of an electro-chemical nature.
Corrosion protection

Damage investigations

Investigating the cause of damage on technical components.


Removal of corrosion layers and rust formation, e.g. fly rust.


Degreasing, generally to remove organic impurities such as lubricating greases or silicon oils.


Removal of the rouge coating from metal surfaces without impairing the quality of the treated surface (e.g. electro-polishing).


The term disinfecting means a reduction in the number of living micro-organisms by physical and chemical methods.


Occurs on metals at raised temperatures; caused by oxidation.


Inspection of interior spaces which are not accessible for visual examinations such as pipes or containers using a modern borescope.

Excessive pickling

Undesirable attack on the material during the pickling process caused e.g. by pickling times which are too long or pickling temperatures which are too high.


Good Manufacturing Practice = guidelines for quality assurance of production processes and the environment in the production of active substances for pharmaceuticals and medicinal products and also for food and animal feedstuffs.
Good Manufacturing Practice - Wikipedia

Investigation of material resistance

Theoretical or practical study of material suitability characteristics.

Limescale removal

Removal of lime layers and lime deposits, e.g. to improve heat transfer or restore the free pipe cross-section.


The term ozoning means mixing ozone with water or a partial current of water with highly concentrated ozone.


Ozonization means the direct and indirect influence of ozone on contents present in water with different reaction processes.


When stainless steel is exposed to humid air, a thin chrome oxide layer forms almost immediately. This separates the metal from the atmosphere; further oxidation is then possible only by diffusion through the oxide layer. This passive layer in effect halts further corrosion. During passivation, this passive layer is produced artificially by using oxidising media.


Cleaning metal to produce a surface free from coatings and with less deformation. A distinction is made between pickling with and without material removal.


Yellow, red to black-violet surface discolouration of stainless steel which, depending on its intensity, forms a coating that can or cannot be wiped away. Forms in clean/ultra-clean water facilities and clean/ultra-clean steam facilities at raised temperatures. The main components of this rouge are iron oxides or iron hydroxides.


Reduction of the bacterial count, normally by one to three powers of ten is known as sanitising. In contrast to sterilisation which means complete destruction of all micro-organisms.


Steaming/sterilisation in place; for many production processes sterilisation of the entire facility is still needed after SIP cleaning.

SN EN ISO 9712

Content of this standard:
Qualifizierung und Zertifizierung von Personal der zerstörungsfreien Prüfung allgemeine Grundlagen.


Standard Operating Procedure


Chemical or physical elimination of all micro-organisms from a medium. To sterilise water, substances with a strong oxidation effect such as chlorine and ozone are used.
Sterilization - Lexicon

Surface scale

Formation of iron oxide layers at high temperatures, e.g. welding work in an oxygen atmosphere.

Surface scale removal

Mechanical or technical techniques (pickling) to remove surface scale.

Ultra-pure water

Ultra-pure water is used for such purposes as the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, for injection fluids, in medical research, in the production of computer chips or for integrated circuits (ICs). The term de-ionate is also used in scientific literature. This water now only contains residual amounts of a few nanograms of dissolved salts and organic compounds. When water is used to produce pharmaceuticals which are administered to the human body, Water for Injection (WFI) is needed. Detailed specifications also stipulate the quantity of organic components such as cell residues and protein compounds.
Ultra-pure water | Softener, Reverse osmosis, Water preparation

Welding seam inspection

Assessment of welding seam quality on the basis of specifications and standards.